MANAGEMENT TACTICS: PROS AND CONS IN RAMAYANA
Prof .C L Prabhakar,
Dhanyah khalu mahatmano munayah satyasammatah
Jitatmano mahabhagah yesham na stah priyaapriye.
They indeed are the great who conform to truth and have their selves under their control and do not have things liked and disliked.
In fact problems arise owing to the likes and dislikes. It is to get the thing what we like settles with the question of management and crisis. In view of that, solutions need be looked for and this becomes the tactics in the behavior of management. Our ancient literature beginning from various scriptures like Vedas, Puranas and the Epics and further we have the measures and policies suitable for employment to resolve the crises. Further make the life sans distress and suffering. Moreover, there cannot be succumbing to the onslaught of the pressure of the problems. Every thought has two sides and the best should be worked out that we do not regret. This is the vyavaharajnana.
A kavaya is known as the vyavara sastra teaching the tactics to outwit the problem and get over the difficulty with intelligence and common sense..Vyavahara (Worldly affairs) is the management and business transactions to move life to a happy end. In other words, we need ‘medha’ and prajna to balance our situations in life. Life involves both difficulty and comfort. We like the latter more than the former plight.
.Ramayana is the river born at the feet of the Valmiki Mountain and which runs to the ocean of Rama (ramasagara gamini) where after there is identity of happiness. Therefore it is flooded with the management issues of bigger scale too and see that the success and peace is achieved. River in its runs gathers several other joining rivers , grows strong and merges in the ocean even losing its identity.
Ramayana has seven kandas and 24 thousand slokas (gayatri bijasammitam). There are more than 500 characters to support the journey of life of Rama. .In such a huge work, the whole focus is on the mission of Rama the prince who was sent to the forest on exile for 14 years by his father Dasaratha, the king of Ayodya.
This happened after his marriage with Sita, the daughter of Janaka, the king of Videha. This kavya is meant for providing upadesa(instruction) and instant relief(nivrutti). But the style of instruction is quite pleasant like that of the talk of a like woman (kantasammitam).
The characters depicted in the work belonged to the class of men (Manavas), Rakshasas Vanaras, Birds,. Animals, the objects of Nature, the Gods, the sages and the Munis living in the forest and more.. Departed Beings also appear to congratulate the living. Prominent among them are the sages Vasistha, Viswamitra, Bharadwaja,Agastya,Atri. Likewise yoginis like, Svayamprabha ,sabari and others. The mountains, the oceans and the rivers also, participate in the on run of the story.
The whole set up worked congruently to work for the loka kalyana and dharma samsthapana. It was to remove the pain and suffering caused by the demons and their Lord Ravana. The demons inhabited also the dandaka forest and so Rama came down south to put them out. For the plan to happen the sages have carved the route map to Sri Rama and hence their tactics play a prominent role in the Ramayana, Anasuya taught the greatness of pativrtyamahima to Sita preparing her to face the forthcoming calamity to her in the forest.
.Among Vanaras, Vali,Sugreva of the Kishkindha and their band of friends like jambavan Angada, Anjaneya,Sushena and others contributed to the Rama’s work. Likewise, among birds, the bird brothers, Jatayu and the Sampati , showed their service to Rama. Jatayu managed to instill fear and stop Ravana’s way in the skyway, while Sampati helped the vanara troupe to come to know the whereabouts of Sita abducted by Ravana..
Among the Rakshasas the brothers Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana stood strong opposition to Sri Rama. But Vibhishana being a jnani, fell out from the group of Rakshasas but became the lord of Demons owing to Rama’s refuge. Kubera, the owner of the aerial car got back his airbus owing to Rama…To Ravana Sugriva was a brother but the former did not heed to the words of the brother but in case of Rama, the issue is otherwise.
Hanuman was the most capable person who did immense good to the family of the Rama and his brothers .He was the student of Lord Aditya .He became minister to Sugriva and protected him leading to glory and permanence.
Ravana with the help uncle Marica, tried to manage Sita to be away from Rama. This brought him all the peril and all his tactics spoiled his reputation and kingdom. Marica the uncle of Ravana, became a golden deer, lured the mind of Sita. Subsequently, the hero Rama, later followed by Lakshmana the younger brother of Rama got in to the net of the plan of Ravana..Rama loved very much Sita since she is one given by his father approving her to be rama’s wife( darah pitrukrutah iti).She said she wants the deer for her playmate(kridanakam icchami).
They were drawn away from the Ashrama in chase of the deer. Lakshmana was to go away since he could not stand the scolding of his sister in law Sita. Here a suggestion that how women get their intentions strongly managed. Highly, ugly language was used by her and so the mahatma had to obey to the desire of his sister- in -law.
A review of the characters itself will be a good aspect because these are endowed with powers, skills, self less dedication and spirit of tyaga (ramarthe tyakta jivitah)..
In this complex of the characters and the story run of the Ramayana, we have to pick the principles of Management for our current discussion which ultimately resulted in the building a bridge across the ocean (sethubandhana), killing of Ravana (Ravana samhara) and coronation of Sri Rama (rama pattabhisheka.) .In this long process of enterprise one can imagine how much of the skills of management went forth and all that is our gain (sarasvati) for our contemporary lives at all times..
Management is seen from the several fronts of life here in this epic. We can derive norms of tactics from the various fronts like family profession vise, danger management and the desire fulfillment and so on. The management is to achieve happiness but when the balance is not very well, there happens failure too .One’s failure is a gain for the other and so the life journey is full of these two events. Personality development also matters in the principles of the Management. Education, councils and friends come on the way to guide the person involved in the situation If Veda mantras are recited during day, the rakshasas do it in the night since they have different effects to produce .Gayatrimantra is benefic if recited properly otherwise it is dangerous if it is reversed in employment
We shall limit our discussion to the principle characters like Dasaratha, Rama, Sita, Anjaneya, Vali, Sugreeva, Anjaneya, Angada and Jambavan. On the other hand, the opposing characters like Parasurama, Ravana, Vibhishana, and Indrajt. On the side of the female characters, we might mention Kaikeyi, Manthara, Surpanakha, Mandodari, and Lankini.
The chief engineering force is a woman in the work and so the book is called as the work of ‘stree prasanga.The tradition says ;ratrau sriprasangena kalo gachati dhimatam.The Economics does not arise without a Woman. People prefer to study/recite (parayana) in the nights (ratrau striprasangena kalo gacchati dhimatam). It is a woman who put comma to the story where the story progress comes to the end.
Also the places of action is a city, a village(nandigrama),Forest, Water places ,airspace, caves, mountains and so on. Also the implements to be managed are the astras, sastras, trees, stones, rocks ,arrows and such several gadgets. the jewels which figure for right recognition is the ring of Rama and the Crest let of Sita which is secured and delivered ably by hanuman and establish the life contact between the hero Rama and Sita. The Human resource was insufficient to the ultimate management of the fight with Ravana,, the tough demon, Indra’s car and its driver Matali also participated to make the endeavour a success. If the management is rightful, even the animals come and help is the hope which Ramayana lets out. (‘yanti nyaya pravruttasya tiryancopi sahayatam apanthanam tu gacchantuam sodaro’pi vimuncati).If the goals of work is enticed by dharma even own brothers desert the greedy transgressing the borders of behaviouir..
With the principle of Management one can encounter the actual situation either for success or otherwise. Even in management, tactics and tactfulness are necessary. If not the goals, objectives remain defeated. As Valmiki says one has to think of the artha (the subject matter) and the situations as well and the arthantara (the consequences and the hurdles) before coming to a decision.
Haste makes a problem more grave and serious (sahasa na vidadhita kriyah).So one has to take the counsel of the learned (gurubuddhih viseshatah) and act judiciously. Rama consulted hanuman to admit Vibhishana into folds while Ravana none before he planned to kidnap Sita. He turned deaf ear to many good advice. If there is no proper action, then forthcoming events are endangered (bhutarthah vipadyante)..Consider Hanuman’s move and behaviour at Lanka that he was not caught by the demons until all his mission was successfully managed He moved in the night at first in lanka and later saw the panorama of the city in broad daylight when his tail was lit with Fire. Here there is the tinge of the element of divine grace and self will and power necessary for the managerial success in various situations.
Now let us take the instance of the life of Rama. . Rama is known for intelligence swiftness, precision and exactitude in the endeavours. But he lost balance of mind and got into troubles like any human being. But he had an able council around him and so he stood a valorous person (vira), Achiever (sadhaka) and victor ( jayi). There are occasions mentioned in the epic where Rama became stressed and got into depression. But he never gave way for that in view of the advice of Lakshmana,Sugiriva,Vibhishana and Anjaneya. So also Anjaneya who even went to the instance of suicide but his wisdom, learning and responsibility of work assigned to him managed his moods to stop that idea and research his efforts to find Sita in Lanka.
Rama was a victor in view of his quality of obedience to the truth and mind to listen to the opinions of others and situations which demanded his guidance. . He was never stubborn. Hence things became simple. He used his tactics of Intelligence and got over several hurdles and so he is the remover (apaharta) of accidents and crises (apadas) and surprises. When crisis arose to build a bridge across the ocean, Rama said he would take out all water of the ocean and make it fordable. But his friends advised to please Samudra with prayer for three days. He did so by sitting on a darbha asana and meditate on Samudra. Before launching a view, give thought for pros and cons and if necessary take the counsel of gurus. He thus ,at first, decided to appease the lord of the ocean.
Samudra raja appeared and gave out the management ways and possibilities to build bridge over the length of the waters. Samudra took time to evacuate the jalacharas and make way to the building of a bridge. When Vibhishana came, He took the opinion of Hanuman and decided to admit Vibhishana into his folds .He promised him Lankarajya.. He destroyed Kumbhakarana,Indrajit, Ravana etc based on the management tactics offered by Vibhishana, Agastya and others. When rama was adjudged as an able warior, even Indra decided tosend his chariot and the charioteer to help rama in the fight with Ravana finally.
He used the Pushpakavimana (the celestial aerialcar) only for the purpose of reaching Ayodhya fast before the due date of 14 years as promised to brother Bharata.Otherwise he would not accept favours from anybody simply, this policy would be appreciated by many. He loved sita that she was given by his father and elders like that (darah pitrukrutah iti). He aimed to protect the pedigree of his clan and race when an insult was caused to him by the abducting demon king Ravana.
When immediately no weapon was there to punish, he used darbha that was immediately available gave it all strength to chase and mend the kakaasura and so on. This instance is to indicate quick action to redress the problem should be and however it could be. Delay is shunned. Here the underlying principle in management of various grave and dangerous crises was Rama’s nature of docility, (vinaya), presence of mind oriented by his knowledge, experience and intelligence.
Rama is said to be dharmabhrutam varishthah, dharmah murtiman and visesha vyavaharajanah
On the part of Ravana who was the fit enemy of Rama( ramarih) , there is difficulty and miss management and absence of tactics. Moreover, it is not for a long term management. He also employed the tactics but could not succeed. In His part, we see how effect less is the management though one feels it is brought to force appropriately. He had a lot of ego and dictatorial power and such a confidence that he is all victors at all times. He cared not that he should not take hold married woman into his captivity. He was not able to succeed in that aspect and so lost his life. The crime is the abduction of a married woman and the punishment was the death in Ramayana times. .Ravana increased his stubbornness and anger unmindful of the harm (nasa) of his kith and kin, property, powers wealth and prosperity. Ravana is a manager but never honored several signals of danger like omens, deaths, insults and so on. He cared not the feeling of fear although infused by Marica, Jatayu Hanuman etc. Fear is a signal either for rise or fall. It is lesson that Fear-Management is an important factor of success in life.
In the Management pool, there is the bondage of faithfulness and commitment. So Ramayana is known for pathos which when not managed timely and appropriately would land into crisis and destruction.. On either side viz.Rama or Ravana, there is the karuna dominating. Also on the side of Vanaras and Rakshasas, the same pathos continues. The karuna is ever springing feeling and hence management should be tactful necessarily. That is always the pros and cons though the principles remained the same..
Ramayana teaches us the pros and cons of the principle of Management and the same summarized by a singer Purandaradasa. A Manual on this aspect from Ramayana can be prepared . Purandaradasa pointed out that Ravana did not manage well and hence suffered in the hands of Rama while Vibhishana believed in the life styles and activity of Rama, he got the Land (kingdom) to rule. In case of the Vanara – brothers, Vali and sugriva too, Vali did not suspect failure in the hands of Sugriva although he knew that the latter had the support of Sri Rama .Lakshmana understood the core f Rama’s strength and so he pledges it as aforce to finish Indrajit. The requisites of rightful management to hit the target hinted to be;
‘dharmatma satyasandhasca ramo dasarathiryadi
paurushe ca prameyasya sarainam jahi ravanim’.
The force of norm are the some qualities, best as they are,:dharmatama(dutifulness to right things), satyasandha( obedient to Truth) and aprameya paurusha( unmatchable valour) and being obedient to the words of father could be the power of management.When that is hard, the ravani’ the prime opposition would not be silenced. Rama further bears a great deal of patience and skill to outwit the problems and situations. He could become angry too when bhrahmavadins do not suggest rightful unbiased statements.
To conclude our discussion we would get on with the tactics marked out thus
1 Respect Elders and take their counsel. If palatable cultivate to obey that for good. The term Elder here is taken as intelligent people with experience and wisdom (gurubuddhi). They include skilled personnel irrespective age and status etc in the journey of life. Management is the group effect and when it is honored, success is certain
2 Do not delay actions when the situation demands quick action. It may be animal, arrow, or one belonged to any class if appropriate seek their help. Docility and dexterity are the requirement needs.
3When the principle is employed one should take into count the impending dangers also and get over the situation. When pleading does not help, practical action should be taken as in case of Surpanakha or surasa or any.
4. One should not indiscreetly act but wisely keep up the safety and security as priority. The purpose of mission for which one commissioned should be practiced. For example, Rama and Lakshmana confused Surpanakha but Rama advised Lakshmana not to continue play but humiliate her by clipping off her nose and ears. That has led for the glory of Rama and Fall of Ravana
5 There were several fronts to get work done either through the help of sages, or demons, Animals or any. Ramayana is a big cooperative work.the services are pressed to practical situations by a Man with the help of king of Monkeys and his retinue and more.
In view of many points shown above, the great epic Ramayana and the author sage Valmiki have guided humanity with the principles and tactics for rightful management either for short-term or a long-term stipulations. The chief message is behave like Rama and never like Ravana.
‘ramavat vartitavyam na ravanavat..
5 The most popular AdityaHrudayam of the yuddhakancda of Ramayana is an outstanding example for all the principles of management and its tactics. When the strong prospective worker is unable to get into the right action to put out the enemy Ravana, the guru the best wise preceptor came on the scene gave him the suggestion that Aditya prarthana is the right solution .Rama as religious duty did acamana three times and went to fight with Ravana since the ardhya devata of the prayer Aditya said ‘Fire’ looking at the enemy’s death a certain and time for him reached to be killed in the battle. So we have the guru, right worker and the divine sanction and the result the experience of Success. There is a good deal of set of norms for the spiritual management to suggest that Divine grace coupled with human effort could be the sure solution for success
Kavyam vyavahara vide
(A literary work of scientific content also instructs on the issues of rightful management.)